What are cookies?

Websites store small files called cookies on users’ computers or mobile devices when they visit the site. Website owners use cookies to track user preferences, enhance the user experience by personalizing content and advertisements, and collect analytics data. These files can be classified into two types: internal cookies and third-party cookies:

Internal cookies

Internal cookies are created by the website you are visiting. They allow the site to store information about your preferences, such as language or country, to enhance your online experience. For example, if you have chosen French on a website, an internal cookie will be created to remember this preference and automatically display the French content the next time you visit.

Third-party cookies

Third-party cookies are created by third-party websites, such as advertisers or social networks, that have embedded their content on the website you are visiting. These third-party cookies allow third-party sites to track your online activity and present you with personalized ads based on your interests. For example, if you have recently searched online for athletic shoes, you may see ads for athletic shoes on other sites you visit.

And the famous RGPD?

In Europe, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is an important privacy regulation that applies to cookies and other forms of personal data online. The GDPR strengthens users’ rights over their personal data and requires website owners to obtain explicit consent from users before collecting and using their personal data, including cookies.

As a result, many companies have sought ways to track user activity without using cookies, using techniques such as fingerprinting. However, these techniques can also raise privacy concerns, as they can be used to identify users without their consent.


Cookies can greatly enhance the user experience on websites, but they also raise privacy concerns. The GDPR and other online privacy regulations are in place to protect users from the misuse of cookies and other forms of personal data online. Website owners must comply with these regulations and provide clear options for users to control their use of cookies and other forms of online tracking. Theoretically, it is enough to read and choose carefully the options when arriving on the site in order to limit access to personal data.


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